Black Oak/ Lupine Barren
This is considered the classic “Oak Openings” community. This is a savanna where black oak Quercus velutina and white oak Quercus alba are widely spaced and give the community a “park like” appearance. Open stands of these trees occur on the dry sand dunes. Sunlight reaches the surface which allows for a rich herbaceous layer that includes little bluestem Schizachyrium scoparium, Pennsylvannia sedge (Penn sedge) Carex pensylvanica, Junegrass Koeleria macrantha, Canada frostweed Crocanthemum canadense, wild lupine Lupinus perennis, plains puccoon Lithospermum caroliniense, western sunflower Helianthus occidentalis, butterfly milkweed (butterfly weed) Asclepias tuberosa, goats-rue (rabbit’s pea) Tephrosia virginiana, rough blazing star Liatris aspera, and flowering spurge Euphorbia corollata.