Great Lakes Pin Oak- Swamp White Oak Flatwoods
This is a wet forest community where the tree canopy is dominated by pin oak Quercus palustris and swamp white oak Quercus bicolor. The abundance of the herbaceous layer varies depending on water levels and the amount of sunlight. The most frequent plants in this layer include Canada bluejoint Calamagrostis canadensis, common lake sedge Carex lacustris, cinnamon fern Osmunda cinnamomea, royal fern Osmunda regalis, and fowl manna-grass Glyceria striata. The diversity of this layer increases with the amount of sunlight reaching the ground. Shrubs are frequent and can form dense thickets. Shrubs include winterberry Ilex verticillata, swamp rose Rosa palustris, spicebush Lindera benzoin, dogwoods Cornus spp. and chokeberry Aronia melanocarpa. Typically there is a layer of muck over the sand. This community was common and today it is the most frequent wetland community in the Oak Openings. The mesic and wet prairie succeed into this community type from fire suppression and change in water levels.